16 Thrilling Day Trips from Boston Actually Worth Your Time

This post contains affiliate links which means if you purchase or book something through them, we may earn a small commission (at no extra cost to you).

As a travel addict who’s lived in the Boston area for over ten years now, I’m constantly on the lookout for worthwhile day trips from Boston. (Yes, even when I’m not traveling, I’m desperately seeking travel.) Lucky for me, there are so many great options up here.

As compact as New England is, there’s no shortage of great reasons to leaving the city for a day and explore someplace totally new (whether you live here like me or are just visiting). But, where do you start? This post covers 16 of the most fun day trips from Boston that are actually worth your precious time and answers some Boston day tripping questions you probably have. Enjoy!

Day trips from Boston: Map

The map below contains all the day trip destinations mentioned in this post so you can best plan your travels. To save this map, click on the star ⭑ next to the map’s title. To use it, open Google Maps on your phone, click “Saved,” then click “Maps.”

Many of the best day trips from Boston require you to drive there and back. If you haven’t done so yet, check out the best Boston rental car deals here.

Many of the activities and attractions mentioned in this post are also included in the Boston GoCity pass, a deeply discounted sightseeing pass with tons of other benefits. I’ll point out which ones are included throughout this post.

White Mountains views

Outdoorsy day trips from Boston

If you’re seeking day trips from Boston in the summer, check out these super fun outdoorsy destinations:

1. White Mountains, New Hampshire | Hiking adventures

If you’re looking to do some hiking near Boston, White Mountain National Forest is about as close to alpine as you can get on the East Coast. This range includes 48 peaks over 4,000 feet including the 6,288-foot Mount Washington—the highest peak in the Northeast.  

Start with one of the peaks in the Presidential Range—Mounts Webster, Jackson, or Pierce—or the Franconia Ridge loop trail. (But maybe stay away from Mount Washington, widely known as one of the deadliest hikes in the entire world, and, no, that’s not an exaggeration.)

White Mountains day trip from Boston: at a glance

  • How to get here: Only by car
  • Driving time: 2.5 hours each way
  • Need to know: Given the inherent risks of hiking, you’ll want to head out as early in the morning as you can swing to make sure you have enough daylight.
  • More information: Visit AllTrails for all the necessary trail information.

2. Boston Harbor Islands | Island playgrounds

Even though they’re just right outside of Boston, the 30+ islands and peninsulas of Boston Harbor Islands National and State Park feel a world away. You can catch the BHI ferry from either Long Wharf (by the aquarium) or Southie and the ferry rides take just about half an hour (each way). You can visit spots like:

  • Georges Island (spring, summer, & fall) – Home to Fort Warren, a historic Civil War-era fort that also served as a control center during World War II (There’s actually a lot of WWII history in Boston.)
  • Thompson Island (spring, summer, & fall) – Haven of nature trails and great views of the Boston skyline
  • Spectacle Island (summer only) – Full of fun outdoor activities like hiking, swimming, beaches, and boating
  • Peddocks Island (summer only) – Tons of nature, wildlife, and historic structures like Fort Andrews and a WWII-era chapel

Boston Harbor Islands day trip at a glance:

  • How to get here: Ferry
  • Travel time: 30-45 minutes each way, depending on which island you visit
  • Need to know: Public ferries to the Boston Harbor Islands only operate from May to October.
  • More information: Get all the info you need here.

Berkshires photo via Pixabay

3. The Berkshires | Nature & quintessential New England towns

For an easygoing day trip from Boston, consider heading out to the Berkshires. The Berkshires isn’t one specific place, but rather a collection of cities in nature-y Western Mass. All the towns listed below take between 2 to 2.75 hours to get to. Here are a few things you can do on a day trip to the Berkshires:

  • Visit the Berkshires Botanical Gardens or the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge
  • Attend the famous Tanglewood Music Festival in Lenox or spend some time in the Pleasant Valley Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Head over to Great Barrington to do the Monument Mountain hike or a different hike to check out Bash Bish Falls (the highest waterfall in MA)
  • Visit Pittsfield to check out Herman Melville’s former home or the Hancock Shaker Village for some living history
  • Bowl a few strings in Shelburne Falls–one of the oldest bowling alleys in the country
  • Head up to Mount Greylock for some hiking – the highest point in MA and part of the Appalachian Trail

Berkshires day trips from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Car
  • Drive time: Between 2-2.5 hours each way
  • Need to know: The Berkshires is somewhat of a seasonal destination, so always check hours and availability before you head out.
  • More information: Get more details and helpful links for visiting the Berkshires here.

Best historical day trips from Boston

If you’re visiting Boston at all, there’s a good chance you’re at least a little bit of a history nerd (like me). History is one thing we have in abundance here in New England, so allow me to show you some of the best day trips from Boston for history lovers.

4. Lexington and Concord | Revolutionary War sites

These are two different towns, but you can (and should) visit them as one single day trip from Boston. They’re just 15 minutes from each other and have intertwined histories.

Why visit Concord, MA?

Concord, Massachusetts is home to Minuteman National Historic Park, located at the opening battle site of the Revolutionary War. It was here that “the shot heard ‘round the world” was fired, kicking off the American Revolution. While here, check out:

  • Old North Bridge – Site of the shot heard ‘round the world
  • North Bridge Visitor Center – Gift shop, exhibits, and a video about the history
  • Hartwell Tavern – Favorite stop of travelers back in the 1700s
  • The Battle Road Trail – 5-mile trail that connects the towns of Concord and Lexington and follows the original Battle Road of Revolution times
  • Walden Pond – Famous pond thanks to Henry David Thoreau
Reenactments on the Old North Bridge

Why visit Lexington, MA?

That whole The British are Coming! thing? That was Paul Revere riding his horse from Boston to Lexington to warn the militia that British soldiers were on the move. While here, check out:

  • Lexington Green – Site of the (actual) first battle of the American Revolution
  • Buckman Tavern – Another favorite militia watering hole, now a museum (included in the Boston GoCity pass)

Lexington & Concord Reenactments

But the real reason to take a day trip to Concord & Lexington is for the (two major) reenactments:

1. Third Monday in April (a holiday here in Massachusetts known as “Patriot’s Day”) – Minuteman reenactors march into Lexington and reenact the battle on Lexington Green, followed by a full day of historical celebration and events.

2. July 4th at Minuteman National Park – Reenactors march to the Old North Bridge and reenact the shot heard ‘round the world, then they read a copy of the Declaration of Independence, followed by tons of merriment and celebration. U-S-A! U-S-A!

Great Concord & Lexington tours from Boston

Book one of these tours and let someone else handle all your day trip logistics:

Day trip from Boston to Concord & Lexington at a glance

  • How to get here: Car or organized tour
  • Drive time: 40 minutes each way
  • Need to know: The reenactments are totally worth it if you can visit during this time.
  • More information: Check out Minuteman National Park here.

Plymouth Grist Mill

5. Plymouth, Massachusetts | The OG American colony

Even though the Pilgrims landed here in 1620, this town just an hour southeast of Boston is still all about that Mayflower landing, which is why this is one of the best day trips from Boston you can take if you’re an unabashed history geek. Here are some of the top things to see and do in Plymouth on a day trip:

See Plymouth Rock

That’s it; that’s the whole attraction. Just look at it; it’s literally just a rock. Not everyone knows this, especially me on my first of many visits. I always thought Plymouth Rock was more like… the Rock of Gibraltar or something? It is, in fact, a small boulder. But, it’s an important and world famous boulder, so just go look at it.

Plimoth Patuxet Museums

The Plimoth Patuxet Museums (formerly known as Plymouth Plantation) is a living history museum that shows you what life was like in both a 17th-century English Village and a native Wampanoag homesite.

Tour the Mayflower

The Mayflower II is a full-size exact replica of the Mayflower and you can hop on board, tour the whole (frighteningly small) thing, and learn about what life was like on the journey to the New World. (Spoiler alert: horrifying.)

Great Plymouth day tours from Boston

Day trip from Boston to Plymouth at a glance

  • How to get here: Car or tour
  • Drive time: 1 hour each way
  • Need to know: All of these sites are included in the Boston GoCity pass.
  • More information: See Plymouth’s official tourism page here.

Whale skeletons at the New Bedford Whaling Museum

6. New Bedford & Fall River, Massachusetts | Whales & war

For some history of a different sort, head south to the towns of New Bedford and Fall River. New Bedford served as the setting of the novel Moby Dick and you’ll get to learn all about the whaling industry here. In Fall River, it’s all about World War II history. The two cities are just 20 minutes apart and, together, make one excellent day trip from Boston.

What to see & do on a day trip to New Bedford

  • Visit the New Bedford Whaling Museum – Fascinating museum about the history of whaling in New England. You can see the world’s largest model ship along with some completely intact whale skeletons and tons more.
  • Have lunch at the Black Whale – Delicious fresh seafood right here on the waterfront.
  • Grab a beer at Moby Dick Brewing Co. – Delicious whaling-themed beers served on a whale tail? Be still my whimsical heart! (Can I interest you in a glass of Ishm-ale?)
  • Hit up the Herman Melville Walking tour – See significant sites related to the author’s life.

What to see & do on a day trip to Fall River

  • Battleship Cove – Home to 5 National Historic Landmarks including the USS Massachusetts (WWII battleship), USS Lionfish (WWII submarine), and a Higgins boat (the amphibious landing craft used on D-Day)
  • Iwo Jima monument in Bicentennial Park – Monument depicting Joe Rosenthal’s Iwo Jima flag-raising, replica of the original Marine Corps Memorial in Arlington, Virginia

New Bedford & fall river day trip from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Car only (at the moment)
  • Drive time: 1 hour 20 minutes from Boston each way (20 minutes between the two)
  • Need to know: A new train line to these two destinations is slated to open summer 2024!
  • More information: Check out New Bedford tourism here / Read about WWII sites throughout Massachusetts here.

7. Springfield, Massachusetts | Unique museums

Springfield, MA is another great destination for history lovers if the history you’re most interested in is sports, guns, and/or international tragedy. Hear me out…

What to see & do on a day trip to Springfield, MA

  • Basketball Hall of Fame – Did you know basketball was invented here in Springfield, MA? Ergo, the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame and its 40,000+ square feet of basketball history.
  • Springfield Armory – National Historic Site at the country’s first armory where you can explore centuries of military weaponry.
  • Titanic Museum – Check out the collection of rare Titanic survivor artifacts–“one of the finest anywhere,” apparently.

Springfield day trip from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Car only
  • Drive time: 1.5 hours each way
  • More information: More Western Mass tourist info here.

8. Hartford, Connecticut | Lobster & literary history

I took my first day trip to Hartford in 2018 and I couldn’t believe it had taken me so long. (After all, Connecticut is where the lobster roll was invented; what had I been waiting for?) Hartford is the capital of Connecticut, just a 1.5-hour drive from Boston, and home to some really cool museums. While in Hartford, check out:

  • Mark Twain House – Cool museum to Mark Twain in the (huge) house he lived in
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe Center – Abolitionist and author Harriet Beecher Stowe actually lived right next door to Mark Twain!
  • Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art – Tons of European and Egyptian art and cool temporary exhibits
  • Get a lobster roll for lunch!

Day trip to Hartford from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Car
  • Drive time: 1.5 hours each way
  • More information: See all there is to do in Hartford here.

Super ambitious day trips from Boston

If all of these day trips from Boston so far have seemed a little too easy and relaxed, might I interest you in more of a challenge? For when you really want a more ambitious day trip from Boston, head to:

9. New York City day trip from Boston

Before you get all That’s crazy! on me, hear me out. I’ve taken a day trip to New York City from Boston a bunch of times and I’m happy to report it’s totally doable! Yes, it’s going to be a long day; and yes, it’s going to be exhausting… but it’s also going to be SO FUN AND EXCITING! Don’t let the distance between the two cities scare you off; at least consider it first.

How to take a day trip from Boston to NYC

NYC may not be the most popular day trip from Boston, but you can’t say it’s not accessible. You can get between the two cities via car, train, a combination of the two (and I’ve done all three), or bus. Travel time is pretty much the same for all: 4 hours.

Boston to NYC by car: It’s a fairly straightforward drive from Boston to NYC, but I’m going to steer you away from this method because:

  • Driving the 4 hours back to Boston late after a (long) day trip to New York City is too dangerous
  • There’s so much potential for ungodly traffic backups
  • You’ll have to pay a ridiculous amount in tolls
  • Driving in and around NYC is a nightmare at best
  • And so is parking

Boston to NYC by train: The Amtrak from Boston to NYC takes between 3.5 and 4 hours and you don’t have to worry about a thing as far as transportation goes. Just sit back and scroll Instagram until you get there. The main thing I don’t like about this direct train is that it ends in Penn Station instead of Grand Central. (Booo.)

Boston to NYC by car + train: Because I live here and have my own car, this is how I usually make this trip. It’s a two-hour drive from Boston to New Haven, CT where I park my car and hop on the Metro North—the commuter rail system between Manhattan and the CT suburbs. The train ticket is so cheap and parking at the train station is beyond reasonable. (Driving that last two hours home late at night is brutal though.)

Boston to NYC by bus: The Flixbus has several time slots that all take about the same as the other methods and cost much less. It’s always a gamble traveling by bus in the U.S., but it’s still a worthy option.

What to see and do in NYC on a day trip

Well, there’s more to see and do in NYC than literally any other place in this country, so I’ll leave that up to you. (Check out my NYC bucket list here for all the best stuff!) Really, you can do just about anything you can dream of.

Boston to NYC day trip at a glance

  • How to get here: Car, train, car + train, bus
  • Travel time: 3.5 – 4 hours
  • Need to know: Amtrak tickets between the two cities are cheaper the farther out you book them. Don’t wait until the last minute to book or prices will be outrageous.
  • More information: See what to do in NYC here.

The historic Portland Head Light

Coastal day trips from Boston

Another thing we have in abundance here are charming coastal towns just a short drive away. Consider one of these great destinations for your day trips from Boston.

10. Newport, Rhode Island | Mansions, wine, & sailboats

Newport, RI is going to be the bougiest of your day trips from Boston but also one of the most beautiful. (JFK lived here.) Here’s what to see and do with a day in Newport:

  • Walk the cliff walk – Free 3.5-mile walking trail on the coastal cliffs with awesome views
  • Visit the Newport mansions – See what sick amount of wealth looks like at the Breakers (owned by the Vanderbilt family), Rosecliff (built for an heiress), and tons more from the gilded age (modeled after French chateaux).
  • Visit one of the many wineries – Newport Vineyards and Greenvale Vineyards are my two faves.
  • See the Newport coast from a sailboat – I’ve done midday and sunset sails here and loved them both!
  • Check out the charming seaside town or take a walking food tour.

Boston to Newport day trip at a glance:

  • How to get here: Car only or this Newport Mansions Full-Day Trip from Boston
  • Drive time: 1.5 hours each way
  • Need to know: Newport is a seasonal destination and many places are closed in the winter; just take note before you head down.
  • More information: More Newport visitor info here.

11. Portsmouth, New Hampshire | History & dumb guy stuff

Head one hour’s drive from Boston in the other direction to Portsmouth, NH for another coastal day trip from Boston that’s equally charming, delicious, and historic. Here’s what to do here:

  • Stroll through beautiful Prescott Park in the spring/summer
  • Walk the Black Heritage Trail – Lots of monuments and Underground Railroad sites here
  • See the USS Albacore – Unique research submarine
  • Eat at Geno’s Chowder Shop, Kaffee Vonsolln (amazing German bakery), and Annabelle’s Ice Cream
  • Visit the Museum of Dumb Guy Stuff – Model trains, battle diorama, a big dog; it’s fantastic, trust me.

Portsmouth, NH day trip from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Car only
  • Drive time: 1 hour from Boston each way
  • Need to know: There’s also a Portsmouth, RI (which is basically Newport), so make you sure you’re heading NORTH, not south.
  • More information: More on what to do in Portsmouth here.

12. Portland, Maine | Craft beer, great food, & lighthouses

Head even further north of Boston and you’ll be in Portland in southern Maine–another delicious day trip from Boston. Foodies and craft beer junkies, rejoice! Here are some of the top things to do here on a day trip:

  • Stop by a craft brewery – Bissell Brothers, Alagash (my personal fave), Definitive, and tons more. (But do so responsibly if returning to Boston means you’ll be driving.)
  • Eat at some of the best spots – Duckfat, Eventide Oyster Co., Central Provisions
  • Visit the Portland Head Light – Historic lighthouse + gorgeous setting
  • And the Portland Museum of Art – See Monet, Jackson Pollock, and more
  • Stroll the Old Port – Cafés, shops, lots of things to do

Great Portland tours

Portland, ME day trip from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Car only
  • Drive time: 1 hour 45 minutes each way
  • Need to know: I have yet to have great lobster in Maine; see if you can prove me wrong!
  • More information: More on Portland things to do here.

Best fall day trips from Boston

I’m sure it’s not news to you that New England in the fall is just *chef’s kiss!* And while you should definitely spend more than a day out in our nature this fall, there are still a couple of beautiful day trips you can take from Boston to see the color and soak up the season.

13. Salem, Massachusetts | Halloween central

Though not exactly known for its fall color, Salem, Massachusetts is without a doubt the best day trip to take from Boston in the month of October. Known for its infamous witch trials of the 1600s, Salem is Halloween Central for the entire month. If you’re of the “Halloween is a month-long holiday” belief, definitely plan a day trip to Salem. While here, do the following:

  • Visit the Salem Witch Museum – It’s pretty kitschy but still gives you a pretty good idea of what the “Salem Witch Trials” were all about (Included in the Boston GoCity pass.)
  • Check out all the Hocus Pocus filming locations – My personal favorite thing to do here.
  • Walk around downtown Salem – Check out all the potion stores, magic shops, palm readers, and other spooky spots.
  • Pop by the Bewitched statue of Elizabeth Montgomery
  • Visit the famous House of the Seven Gables – Built in 1668; Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote a novel about it. (Included in the Boston GoCity pass)

If you’re not into the whole “witch” thing but still want to visit Salem, you can (and should) visit any time of the year. In that case, also consider:

  • Visiting the Peabody Essex Museum, a world-renowned art museum (included in the Boston GoCity pass)
  • Exploring the Salem Maritime National Historic Site
  • Stop by Notch Brewery for some delicious European-style beers (another personal favorite)

How to get from to Salem from Boston

Taking a day trip from Boston to Salem is super easy and you can actually get here four different ways: by car, train, ferry, or small-group day trip.

Boston to Salem by car: Quick and easy 35-minute drive (Rent a car here if you haven’t done so already.)

Boston to Salem by train: Quick and easy 30-minute train ride on the commuter rail leaving from North Station (Newburyport/Rockport line)

Boston to Salem by ferry: 50-minute high-speed ferry ride departing from Long Wharf. I realize this is about twice as long as the other two methods, but it’s great if you don’t want to deal with public transportation, don’t have a car, and want to see Boston from the water (which I recommend). Consider it a sightseeing cruise too!

Boston to Salem with a small-group tour: This highly-rated guided tour of Salem also includes roundtrip ferry transportation (plus a guided walking tour of many of the best Salem sites and admission to the Salem Witch Museum).

Salem day trip from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Car, train, ferry, or tour
  • Travel time: 30-50 minutes each way, depending on your chosen means
  • Need to know: Salem in October is seriously awesome but also crowded and chaotic, so (mentally) plan accordingly.
  • More information: Check out Salem’s tourism page here.

NH in the fall via Pixabay

Top day trips from Boston for fall foliage

There’s more to New England in the fall than just witches; there’s also vibrant fall color! (…in the woods where the witches hang out, obviously.)

14. The Berkshires (fall edition)

I won’t talk more about what to do on a day trip to the Berkshires since I’ve already done that, but know this is a fantastic day trip to take from Boston in the fall as much as in the summer.

Even if all you do is drive through, you’ll see gorgeous fall foliage. However, these charming Berkshires towns are even more charming in the fall with all their small-town, Stars Hollow vibes. Here’s where to go and what to see in the Berkshires in the fall:

  • Drive: Mohawk Trail along Route 2, a historic scenic route
  • See: The Bridge of Flowers in Shelburne Falls, MA
  • Drive: Berkshires Scenic Byway (Route 7)
  • See: Adorable and historic Williamstown
  • Drive: to the top of Mount Greylock (MA’s highest point) for awesome views
  • Hike: to the top of Mount Greylock, part of the Appalachian Trail


Did you know there’s such thing as a “foliage tracker” that tracks peak fall foliage colors? “Peak Week” is going to be the busiest time in these cities, but also the most beautiful. So, just weigh those pros and cons before you set out. Get more Berkshires in the fall info here.

New England in the fall via Pixabay

15. White Mountains, NH (fall edition)

Even if you’re not a hiker, the White Mountains of New Hampshire still make one of the best day trips from Boston in the fall due to the insane fall foliage here. Again, all you really have to do is drive. (If that’s all you want to do, of course.) Here’s where to go and what to do:

  • Drive: The Kancamagus Highway – Incredibly scenic winding mountain drive
  • Hike to: Artist’s Bluff in Franconia Notch State Park – Gorgeous mountain viewpoint
  • Drive to: The top of Mount Washington – It’s a super dangerous hike, yes, but driving to the summit via the Mount Washington Auto Road is a popular local activity. Or you can opt for the Cog Railway—the first ever mountain railway.

Need to know

The White Mountains of New Hampshire, as popular as they are, still lack basic travel necessities. If you plan to hike or drive here, be sure to pack plenty of food and water and fill up your gas tank beforehand.

Cape Cod photo via Pixabay

Cape Cod (beach) day trips from Boston

If you came here looking for info on Cape Cod day trips from Boston, I’m afraid I have bad news. Cape Cod is not a doable day trip from Boston. If you really want to visit the Cape, you’ll need at least a few days. Here’s why:

  • Attempting to get from Boston to Cape Cod in the summer literally means hours and hours of sitting in traffic. There are only a couple of (narrow) ways and bridges onto the Cape and the bottleneck is like nothing you’ve ever seen before.
  • The Cape is long and the roads are narrow (like, 2 lanes) so it takes a really long time to get anywhere.
  • There’s nothing worth seeing here that you can’t see much easier and faster in the other day trips from Boston mentioned in this post.
  • This is a summer-only destination. So it’s either mind-numbing traffic or not worth going at all.

16. Provincetown, MA (the one exception)

Provincetown, MA is located on the tippy-tip of Cape Cod and is the only exception for a worthwhile day trip from Boston—because you can take a direct ferry here! Provincetown is a famous LGBTQ getaway and fun summer hot spot. Here’s how to spend a day in Provincetown (still part of the Cape Cod National Seashore):

  • Visit the Pilgrim Monument and Provincetown Museum (Did you know the Pilgrims actually landed in Provincetown first? Oops.)
  • Spend a beach day at Race Point Beach (and visit Race Point lighthouse)
  • Explore the shops and restaurants on Commercial Street
  • Eat at the famous Lobster Pot (Anthony Bourdain ate here.)

Provincetown day trip from Boston at a glance

  • How to get here: Ferry only – Boston to Provincetown Ferry info here
  • Travel time: 1.5 hours each way
  • Need to know: Provincetown is a seasonal destination (plan accordingly); the high-speed ferry is not cheap.
  • More information: See more Provincetown info here

What about day trips to Nantucket from Boston? Martha’s Vineyard?

Like the Cape, I would never recommend a day trip from Boston to either Nantucket or Martha’s Vineyard. Here’s why:

  • These islands aren’t exactly close – The fast ferry is 1 hour to Nantucket and 1 hour 20 minutes to Martha’s Vineyard and the regular ferry to Nantucket is 2 hours and 15 minutes.
  • You have to get to the Cape first – Maybe an hour ferry doesn’t sound bad, but first you have to get to the Cape to catch it. For more on that nightmare, see the previous section.
  • Getting around these islands just plain sucks – Taxi supply is super limited and demand is super high. It’s not a fun thing.
  • It’s expensive – The high-speed ferry alone is $89.

If you want some beach time while you’re here, take the ferry to Provincetown instead. If you want some charming coastal classic New England cities, visit Portsmouth, Newport, or Portland.

Easy day trips from Boston without a car

If you have no plan to rent a car during your visit, here are the best day trips from Boston you can take via other modes of transportation:

Wise words at the Mark Twain museum

More info for your Boston trip

Like this post? Have more questions about taking day trips from Boston? Ask away in the comments. Have a nice (day) trip!

Save this info, pin this image:

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *